If you want the Meraki to do all of the routing, then you will not need any IP address (or IP-forwarding) on the stack or the standalone switch.
If you have IP addresses configured and IP-forwarding enabled, then the switch will do the routing, which could cause asymmetrical routing or even dropped traffic, as the switch might not have all routes which are otherwise connected to the Meraki in its tables.
Purely as layer 2 devices, the switches act transparent and the clients connected will forward all traffic to the Meraki to do the routing.
For this I would recommend to remove the IP addresses on the stack, or at least make sure that IP-forwarding is disabled. You also can leave one IP address on one of the VLANs (i.e. VLAN "Default" with tag "1") for in-band management if you don't use the dedicated management-port for out-of-band management.
The clients that are connected should all be configured to use the Meraki as default gateway and not one of the other IP addresses if you decide to leave them configured.
Reason you might not reach the 10.0.0.0/24 network from the switch itself is most likely that it does not have a route to this range. The client has a default gateway configured, so it knows to send all traffic to the Meraki for further routing, however the switch does not. So in this case you could add 192.168.100.1 as default route on the switch with 192.168.100.9 and this should solve the situation.